Education Trends that Continue in 2022

Due to the rapid emergence and evolution of technology and the rise of the fourth industrial revolution, the professional world and society have changed significantly. This has led to the need for more effective and engaging learning environments. To ensure that their students are equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to succeed in today’s world, teachers must continuously monitor and learn about the latest trends in education.

As they prepare to implement the latest education developments, teachers should additionally be aware of the five most important trends that will affect their profession.

The rapid emergence and evolution of technology has not only changed the way students learn, but it has also led to the increasing number of people who are able to access information and classes through the internet. In 2017, over 6.5 million students were enrolled in various distance learning programs.

The rise of technological capabilities has led to the development of various learning-support tools and media that can help students improve their academic performance.

The increasing number of students taking advantage of online learning programs has raised concerns about the potential impact of this trend on the quality of education.

One of the main concerns about the increasing number of students taking advantage of online learning programs is the lack of opportunities for them to develop soft skills. This could prevent them from engaging with their fellow students in a more authentic and effective manner.

Another issue that online learning programs can present to teachers is the possibility of them having to change their teaching methods to ensure that their students are engaged.

Fortunately, the availability of online learning programs and technology-infused instruction can provide teachers with a variety of opportunities to improve their teaching methods and meet the needs of their students. One of the most important advantages of this trend is the ability to provide their students with the opportunity to watch live or recorded versions of lectures.

The availability of online learning programs can also help teachers provide their students with the necessary accommodations to meet their individual learning styles. For instance, in certain courses, teachers can provide their students with additional learning resources that will help them go deeper into the material.

One of the most important advantages of this trend is the ability to provide teachers with a variety of opportunities to improve their teaching methods and meet the needs of their students. One of the most effective ways to do this is by implementing a learning management system. This type of system can help them track the progress of their students and provide them with more timely coaching.

According to a study conducted by the Future of Jobs, the importance of critical thinking, creativity, and people management is acknowledged by employers. They also want to see professionals who are capable of making hard decisions and displaying their leadership abilities.

Originally published on Marilyn’s website!

How to Teach Empathy to Children

Although it’s not always possible to teach empathy, it is still possible to do so. It requires more than just being a good role model. In addition to being able to act as a positive role model, it also involves understanding the psychology of empathy and the skills that children need to develop to share their thoughts and feelings.

If you think of empathy as a fixed trait that people are automatically born with, then it might seem strange to think of it as a skill or ability that people can develop. However, empathy isn’t a single skill or ability that can be easily acquired. It requires a combination of skills and abilities to develop.

One of the basic characteristics of empathy is the ability to feel another person’s emotions. This ability, which is called “affective empathy,” is believed to exist in both humans and animals.

For instance, if your baby is experiencing a distressed feeling because another child is crying, can he share his feelings?

Although your child is still very young, he doesn’t yet understand all the facial expressions that you’re saying. He doesn’t yet know what triggers these feelings or the range of emotions that you can experience.

The development of empathy can be influenced by a child’s experiences. For instance, how they communicate with one another, their social relationships, and whether they can cope with shared feelings of overwhelming or unpleasantness.

When it comes to showing empathy, you need to first acknowledge the needs of another person. You also need to feel justified in doing so. The cultural forces that influence a child’s development of empathy include the media and authority figures.

Being able to show empathy isn’t something that you can automatically develop, nor is it something that can be influenced by the environment.

When it comes to developing empathy, children tend to shrink away from experiencing the pain of another person. This is a natural response to avoid being perceived as hurting another person.

Developing a positive parenting style can help children develop empathy. This type of approach makes them feel secure and helps them feel like they can be supported.

Being able to feel secure helps kids develop a stronger sense of self-worth and helps them feel like they can rely on us for support. They are also more likely to take risks when they see people who need help. This is because they’re more likely to feel that they can help. See the Parenting Science guide for more information about how to practice positive parenting.

Being able to regulate your negative emotions can also help children develop empathy. According to a study conducted by Song et al., children who are more capable of handling their negative feelings are more likely to show empathy for others.

Being able to acknowledge and explain negative feelings can also help children develop empathy. This can be done through talking about the causes of their feelings and the effects of their actions.

Studies also suggest that “emotion coaching” can help kids of all ages. However, younger kids are more likely to benefit from this type of approach. Early kids are already capable of displaying a capacity for empathy, but they don’t always use it. There are several ways that parents can help children develop their empathy.

According to research, asking kids to reflect on the feelings of others can help them develop their empathy.

In an experiment conducted on 400 Dutch school children, Sierksma and her colleagues asked them to imagine a scenario involving a classmate. Half of the students were told that the classmate was a friend, while the other half were told that the same was not the case. In a scenario, your classmate is late and needs to clean up the classroom. She says she’s worried about her mother’s deteriorating health condition. Would you help her?

The results of the experiment showed that children’s responses changed after the researchers added a second step to the procedure. This step made the kids reflect on the situation. The researchers then asked the children to think about the girl and rate her feelings. They then made the kids reflect on the situation.

After rating the feelings of the girl, the children were no more likely to choose the friend than the other kids. They also said they would help the girl, regardless of whether she was their friend or not. The additional reminder prompted the kids to change their judgments even more.

All of this is to say that you can, in fact, teach empathy to children!

Emerging Trends in Early Childhood Education

Early childhood education (ECE) is a wide-range of topics that you should be aware of. Whether you are a teacher or just care about kids, keeping up with the latest trends in the field is a great way to nourish the little ones in your life.

Seeing the ideas being discussed in ECE conferences can be uplifting. There is still a lot of research that shows that early childhood development can have a lasting impact on children and adults. Many studies also suggest that when done right, ECE can help children develop their social and academic skills.

Despite how important early childhood education is, it doesn’t always mean that we have the necessary skills to guide the kids. This is why it’s important that we keep up with the latest trends in the field.

Aside from being able to keep up with the latest trends in the field, you don’t have to spend a lot of time watching educational documentaries to keep up with what’s happening in ECE. We asked experts in the field to share their thoughts on some of the key trends that they’re seeing in the field.

One of the key trends that’s happening in the field is the increasing emphasis on systematic phonics instruction. According to Christina Williams, the owner of Book Bums, this is due to the growing number of experts and community groups denouncing the harmful effects of the curriculum being promoted by major publishers.

Many of the research centers that are located in Hanford are focused on the outdated assumptions that are being used in the teaching of reading. With the increasing number of experts denouncing the harmful effects of the curriculum, Williams sees changes coming in the field.

According to Williams, she has seen many teachers who are not able to teach children to read and spell well. She says that the main reason why this is is is due to the universities not teaching them how to properly implement phonics instruction. This is because many of them are not able to grasp the concepts of words. In addition, the materials used in the teaching of reading are often based on outdated methods that leave a lot of students behind.

Due to the lack of skilled teachers in the field, many ECE professionals are struggling to stand out from the crowd. According to Chris Drew, a university instructor, there are many individuals working in the field who lack the necessary skills to teach phonics. He advises aspiring teachers to thoroughly study and demonstrate their competency in this subject in their job interview.

Since learning to read is a vital component of academic success, it’s very important that ECE professionals are able to change the paradigm regarding this subject. According to Williams, too many students are not able to read at a high level and end up in the criminal justice system. She is also grateful for the increasing number of teachers who are able to implement effective reading instruction.

According to Drew, the Scandinavian approach to ECE is starting to gain popularity in the North American market. It’s no wonder that people are eager to try out this new approach to teaching. Besides being able to bring some fresh air into the classroom, the goal of this type of teaching is to provide a conducive environment for learning.

Drew also noted that the increasing number of children being exposed to nature through play is also a contributing factor to the increasing number of children being able to develop their physical and academic skills. He said that playing in natural environments can help children build a connection with their local ecosystem.

Although the popularity of Forest Schools has increased, many schools still lack the necessary space to accommodate them. This is also the reason why many teachers are also incorporating natural elements into their lessons. Aside from being able to bring some fresh air into the classroom, the goal of this type of teaching is to provide a conducive environment for learning.

The achievement gap is a statistical measure that shows the differences in the academic achievement of different groups. It is calculated by various factors such as the graduation rates of students, college enrollment, and grade point averages. It can also be used to identify groups that are most likely to perform well in college and in life. Among the other factors that can affect the achievement of students are their first language and the type of language they are learning.

The achievement gap is also used by the federal government to determine the funding for ECE. In 2015, the Every Student Succeeds Act gave states the opportunity to evaluate their needs for ECE and apply for grants. These grants are then allocated to programs that are designed to help improve the academic skills of children.

One of the most crucial components of a successful education is the assessment of student learning. This is also one of the primary metrics that schools have to measure in order to identify their success with their young learners.

Early education centers that are serving disadvantaged children may receive more funding from the state if they can demonstrate that their students are making academic progress. These centers are usually located in areas where children from low-income families live.

The new Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) provides a framework for the continuous assessment of student learning. It can also help schools develop effective strategies and implement new state initiatives.

In addition to being used in schools, technology is also becoming an integral part of ECE as experts in this field continue to consider how to teach it to their students. One of the most challenging factors that they have to consider is how to prepare children for the digital age.

Aside from being used in schools, technology is also becoming an integral part of ECE as experts in this field continue to consider how to teach it to their students. Despite the positive effects of technology, there are still many questions that teachers have to consider.

One of the most important factors that ECE professionals have to consider is how kids are interacting with technology. According to the Common Sense census, there are four main forms of technology that children can use.

How Education Affects Society

We have come a long way in terms of scientific development, and credit goes to education. The goal of education is to provide people with the necessary knowledge to improve their quality of life. There are various mediums that people can learn from, such as books, critical analysis, and reading.

The importance of education is a powerful tool that can help build a better society. It instills a sense of ethical and moral values in the members of a community. This is also beneficial for the citizens of prosperous nations as they are more likely to be aware of their rights.

Developing ethical values requires an integrated approach. While fighting against social ills, education can also serve as an effective tool for people to make smart decisions. An educated individual can make the right choice when it comes to dealing with social problems.

People become more patient as they learn, and education helps them see the world through a different lens. It also brings more positivity into the society, as people become more accepting of those who are different from them. The human brain is also able to nurture good thoughts as it learns to accept moral values.

Through education, a society can transform itself without affecting its traditional outlook. It can also help people deal with ethical dilemmas in a more profound manner.

The first step in solving a problem is understanding the issue. Having the necessary knowledge and skills to research and develop a solution is also a must. There are also international issues that require specialized expertise.

A person who has the necessary skills in a specific field can easily address various issues and come up with solutions. Public forums and agendas allow people to discuss their concerns. Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities.

The various benefits of education are also reflected in the ability of people to make informed decisions. It can help them become more rational and make them more responsible citizens.

Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities. One can also make the right decision if he or she has an education. Having this level of education can also help people anticipate the possible outcome of their decisions.

The link between education and productivity is also widely acknowledged. Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities. It can also help people keep their focus and improve their efficiency. Having the necessary number of people with these skills and knowledge can also boost the local economy.

Due to the increasing importance of education, governments around the world are investing in the quality of education.

Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities. Having a well-rounded society can also improve the quality of life for everyone. Aside from being able to perform better at work, a healthy lifestyle can also help people maintain a balanced and active life.

Unfortunately, capital punishment is not enough for most cases due to the actions of criminals and prisoners following the same path after they have been released. Having the necessary education can help these individuals stand up for themselves and become good citizens of a society.

Having the necessary education can also give everyone the opportunity to self-empowerment. Women are more likely to use their skills and talents due to the availability of education. Also, due to the increasing number of people with different backgrounds, society is more inclusive.

Affirmative learning is a type of education that rejects the use of violence, racial superiority, and biases. It also helps people develop their connections across the border.

When the world experie

We have come a long way in terms of scientific development, and credit goes to education. The goal of education is to provide people with the necessary knowledge to improve their quality of life. There are various mediums that people can learn from, such as books, critical analysis, and reading.

The importance of education is a powerful tool that can help build a better society. It instills a sense of ethical and moral values in the members of a community. This is also beneficial for the citizens of prosperous nations as they are more likely to be aware of their rights.

Developing ethical values requires an integrated approach. While fighting against social ills, education can also serve as an effective tool for people to make smart decisions. An educated individual can make the right choice when it comes to dealing with social problems.

People become more patient as they learn, and education helps them see the world through a different lens. It also brings more positivity into the society, as people become more accepting of those who are different from them. The human brain is also able to nurture good thoughts as it learns to accept moral values.

Through education, a society can transform itself without affecting its traditional outlook. It can also help people deal with ethical dilemmas in a more profound manner.

The first step in solving a problem is understanding the issue. Having the necessary knowledge and skills to research and develop a solution is also a must. There are also international issues that require specialized expertise.

A person who has the necessary skills in a specific field can easily address various issues and come up with solutions. Public forums and agendas allow people to discuss their concerns. Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities.

The various benefits of education are also reflected in the ability of people to make informed decisions. It can help them become more rational and make them more responsible citizens.

Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities. One can also make the right decision if he or she has an education. Having this level of education can also help people anticipate the possible outcome of their decisions.

The link between education and productivity is also widely acknowledged. Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities. It can also help people keep their focus and improve their efficiency. Having the necessary number of people with these skills and knowledge can also boost the local economy.

Due to the increasing importance of education, governments around the world are investing in the quality of education.

Having the necessary knowledge and skills can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities. Having a well-rounded society can also improve the quality of life for everyone. Aside from being able to perform better at work, a healthy lifestyle can also help people maintain a balanced and active life.

Unfortunately, capital punishment is not enough for most cases due to the actions of criminals and prisoners following the same path after they have been released. Having the necessary education can help these individuals stand up for themselves and become good citizens of a society.

Having the necessary education can also give everyone the opportunity to self-empowerment. Women are more likely to use their skills and talents due to the availability of education. Also, due to the increasing number of people with different backgrounds, society is more inclusive.

Affirmative learning is a type of education that rejects the use of violence, racial superiority, and biases. It also helps people develop their connections across the border.

When the world experiences major global challenges, such as terrorism, poverty, and environmental issues, education can help build a well-functioning society. It can also help people distinguish right from wrong and keep the country’s ethical boundaries intact. Having the necessary skills and knowledge can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities.

Major global challenges, such as terrorism, poverty, and environmental issues, education can help build a well-functioning society. It can also help people distinguish right from wrong and keep the country’s ethical boundaries intact. Having the necessary skills and knowledge can also help people develop their problem-solving capabilities.

What to Know About Being an Education Major

Education majors are some of the most influential people in the world. Whether they teach, coach, or work with kids at a daycare center, they play an integral role in shaping the minds of the following generations and preparing them for their future. But what does it take to be an education major? What does one need to know before choosing this path? Here is a quick overview of the things that every prospective education major should know:

Education Majors Potential Income

While not every education major will make a living in the classroom, many do. The ones who choose to work as teachers can be either low-income or high-income earners, depending on the state they teach in and their credentials. According to statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 193,800 elementary and middle school teachers were employed in 2016 with an average hourly pay rate of around $30 per hour, which comes out to roughly $64,000 annually. Several states also offer “step” salaries for teachers who earned their master’s degree and/or additional certifications such as specialized ESL or special education training.

Shaping Young Minds

Teaching, of course, is not the only career option for education majors. They can choose many other paths, including working as child care providers or preschool teachers at a daycare center. In addition to these roles, which focus on the younger generations, some teach adults or provide instruction on various topics. One important thing to keep in mind before choosing your path as an education major is that all states require you to be certified to become a teacher or caregiver/teacher assistant. Specific programs will consider this and include certification training within their degree program. More expensive programs will often include this in their financial aid package, while less expensive ones may not.

Positive Role Models

Above all else, students who study education learn how to influence and shape lives from a young age to adulthood. It’s the reason why so many people choose this path—because they want to give back and help others reach their full potential. In addition to that skill, there are also specific classes that prepare education majors for things like discipline, classroom management, assessment practices, and more. These can help them become highly effective educators in a wide array of settings once they have graduated from college and entered the workforce. If you’re considering becoming an education major or know someone who is, it is essential to know what you can expect on the path ahead.

Article originally published on MarilynGardnerMilton.org

Tools To Help Improve and Enhance Distance Learning

Because of Covid, 2020 has become a year where students are doing more learning from home than ever before. Some students have to remain at home. Some are doing a mixture of online learning and learning at home. As a result, there are some tools that teachers may need that will help them.

One tool that is recommended is “Quizizz.” This is a site that has online learning games. This site has games for almost any topic. The games include activities that re-enforce the lesson and allow players to find out how well they’re doing. The lessons these games teach are individually paced as well.

“Bamboozle” is yet one more gaming site. Students play in teams. They can pick a question and talk to each other in order to arrive at the correct answers.

“Quill” allows students to learn grammar. In order to get additional practice when needed, “Quill” recommends the appropriate practice lessons.

The Math Sites:

For those students who are math-challenged, there are online sites for that as well.

“Google Slides” is free and it’s simple to use. The questions let students use third-party applications that let them insert screen shots that show the work they did. This allows teachers to observe and modify the answers.

“The Math Learning Center” lets students interact with things that are familiar to them. Teachers are able to customize things. They can create their own problems. This encourages flexible thinking that lets students find different ways to understand a problem.

“Flip Grid:” This website is exceptional because it offers back-and-forth video dialog among students. “Flip Grid” allows for collaboration.

“Peardeck” offers immediately visible replies from students. It works well with “Google Slides.”

Tools That Make It Easier:

These tools are useful to online instructors who need to add to their lessons. They provide teachers with solid support.

“Padlet” lets students learn from one-another. The instructor can upload the content and give the students feedback. It has something called an “image search option.”

“Kahoot” is yet another supportive tool. It can help an instructor to wrap things up.

“Wordwall” has lots of content to support teachers with.

Whatever needs fit your lessons, there are tools available online to help enhance lessons and learning.

Three Education Trends to Watch

Technology is rapidly evolving, and subsequently, it has the power to transform different industries as well. Though schools and academia have not traditionally been the quickest to pick up on digital trends, that doesn’t mean that change isn’t happening. Today we’re exploring three education trends to watch. 

Artificial Intelligence

Businesses have been harnessing the power of artificial intelligence for its ability to rapidly process vast quantities of data and generate insights. Soon, the education sector can also be transformed with the adoption of this technology. Artificial intelligence is capable of performing tasks such as speech recognition, language translation, and decision-making. The best application for it so far is as a teaching tool, although supporters say that it may help to alleviate teacher shortages in the future. In the classroom, artificial intelligence is being used for personalized learning

Virtual Reality

According to education researcher Melissa Pelletier, “creative learning spaces play an important role in student engagement.” Virtual reality can do just that by creating immersive learning environments for students and help them to experience things like history, travel, and even STEM programs. Imagine virtual field trips through time and space that allow students a deeper and more personal understanding of the material. Products like Google Expeditions and various phone apps aim to make virtual reality affordable and accessible for all.  

Blockchain

Blockchain is a technology used to connect, house, and encrypt digital data. Through blockchain, the stored data is not centralized in any one location, making it publicly accessible, easily tracked, and very difficult to corrupt. As such, this has the potential to revolutionize the way that student and faculty records are stored, among a myriad of other possible applications.

Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and blockchain the three digital trends at the top of our list for the 2019-2020 school year. What are some other trends in education that you think we should watch for in the coming year?  

This article was originally published on MarilynGardnerMilton.org

Student Drug Testing

K-12 Law School Series

Student Drug Testing

Marilyn Gardner, lawyer, spent years teaching Advanced School Law at the university doctoral level. Her focus was court decisions at all levels of government which have had an impact on the governance of schools and what school personnel can do in terms of the operation of schools, curriculum, instruction, assessment and school personnel, and treatment of candidates. Marilyn Gardner, Lawyer, would always stress that failure to comply with school law can have far reaching and costly implications.

The K-12 School Law Series curriculum focuses on the Pearson Educational Leadership Series books which focus on the major areas of school litigation and promotes an understanding of the principles of law that guide the governance and operations of schools while equipping school authorities with appropriate knowledge, skills and disposition to fulfill their obligations to school-aged youngsters.

In her research, she identified four Pearson Educational Leadership Series books (https://www.amazon.com/School-Law-Public-Schools-Educational/dp/0137072759) that are valuable resources on these topics.  They cover many facets of K-12 School Law and are important resources to empower school administrators and staff.  They are:

  • Law and Ethics in Educational leadership, David Stader ISBN: 978-0-13-268587-0
  • School Law and the Public Schools, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-707275-0
  • A Teacher’s Pocket Guide to School Law, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-335191-0
  • School Law: Cases and Concepts, Michael W. LaMorte, ISBN:978-0-13-707247-7

Pearson’s resources (https://www.pearson.com/us/sign-in.html) focus on the major areas of school-related litigation and the implications of court rulings for school leaders, teachers as well as the related changes in policy affecting the school environment. School staff will be empowered to deal in legally defensible ways with school- and community-based situations and remain current with school related law and policy.

Topic: Student Drug Testing

Pearson Educational Leadership Series

  • Sample Scenarios from: Law and Ethics in Educational leadership, David Stader (ISBN: 978-0-13-268587-0) and School Law and the Public Schools, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-707275-0

By way of precedent, the first major Supreme Court case that dealt with the legality of random drug testing in a public school occurred in 1995.  The school in the case required random urinalysis for testing as a prerequisite for participating in sports. The school, at the time, was dealing with an increase in disciplinary problems including rudeness in classes and outbursts of profane language. (Veronia School District v Acton)

There was no evidence that the student in question used drugs. However, the parents of a seventh-grade student refused to sign the consent form for drug testing for him to play football. Consequently, he was suspended from athletics. The parents claimed unreasonable intrusion.

The Supreme Court ruled that the school district based its decision on an earlier landmark case (New Jersey v. T.L.O) which ruled that school officials had greater latitude to search students in the school environment to maintain conduct.

It is interesting that the court in Veronia ruled that this type of environment could be considered “special needs in that it warranted “suspicion-less testing” of athletes as a condition for their participation.  The court ruled that “students within the school environment have less expectation of privacy than members of the population in general and that student athletes have even less legitimate privacy expectations than non-athletes.”

The court further ruled that under the drug detection program, the collection of urine, its testing, and disclosure of results were unobtrusive. The court also noted the program served an important governmental interest to deter drug use.

However, you should know that the dissenting justices were vocal in disagreeing with the majority.

But in another split 5 to 4 court decision in 2002 (Pottawatonimi Count v Earls ) the court once again upheld random drug testing of students in any extracurricular activities. This case was different in that it allowed drug testing of students who wanted to be part of any school sponsored club or activity, not just athletics.  They also reiterated that school officials only needed “reasonable suspicion” and not the higher standard to probable cause

The dissenting judges in this case felt that the “special needs” outlined in Veronia were not present. In fact, the Superintendent testified that drugs were not a major issue in the school as outlined in the Veronia case. The courts also did not like that it was drug testing of all extracurricular activities, versus the athletes where there is the risk of immediate physical harm.

However, the court, once again noted that there was a strong government interest in having drug free schools. In the final analysis, the courts are viewing the problems school districts are dealing with drugs and as such, warrant the testing.  It is the price a student must pay if they want to play sports.

School athletes are commonly required to consent to drug testing as a condition of their participation in a particular sport. Some schools have attempted to broaden this requirement to students participating in all extracurricular activities. School leaders need to appropriately apply legal principles in these circumstances.

Trickle Down or Unreasonable Search:

Drug Testing of Students Participating In Extracurricular Activities

Jenny’s parents are refusing to sign a consent form authorizing the school to conduct random urinalysis testing for drug use on their daughter. Because of their refusal, Jenny will not be allowed to participate in band, or other extracurricular school activities. Although you provide them a copy of the School Board policy requiring the signed consent form as a prerequisite for participating in extracurricular activities, they want you to make an exception because it is just unfair to drug test an academically high achieving student.

Let’s legally review this scenario by answering the following questions.

Question 1: Should you make the requested exception? What are the implications of making the exception?

An exception, for the stated reason, should be avoided for several reasons. First, it is generally inaccurate that academically high achieving students are immune from drug use. Secondly, this exception will likely stimulate many other requests for the same reason. As you make additional exceptions, you are technically undermining School Board policy.

Question 2: What’s the legal principle applicable in this situation? What’s the precedent setting case?

The U.S. Supreme Court in Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls (122 S. Ct. 2559), authorized drug tests for middle school students participating in several extracurricular activities. The scope of student drug testing was significantly expanded in this case from just athletes, to students participating in various extracurricular activities. In Jenny’s situation, therefore, it would be legally permissible to deny her participation in band until the parental consent form is signed, based on this Supreme Court case.

Question 3: In this U.S. Supreme Court case, the ruling was directly applicable to specific

extracurricular activities in this particular school. Could this decision be used to include other extracurricular activities?

How do precedent setting cases affect future school practices?

In the Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls (122 S. Ct. 2559), the following extracurricular were specifically mentioned in the ruling: band, color guard, choir, Future Farmers of America, Future Homemakers of America, and the school’s athletic and academic teams. However, this precedent setting case establishes a solid legal foundation to require drug testing consent as a perquisite for participation.

Facebook Postings

K-12 Law School Series

Facebook Postings

Marilyn Gardner, lawyer, spent years teaching Advanced School Law at the university doctoral level. Her focus was court decisions at all levels of government which have had an impact on the governance of schools and what school personnel can do in terms of the operation of schools, curriculum, instruction, assessment and school personnel, and treatment of candidates. Marilyn Gardner, Lawyer, would always stress that failure to comply with school law can have far reaching and costly implications.

The K-12 School Law Series curriculum focuses on the Pearson Educational
Leadership Series books which focus on the major areas of school litigation and promotes an understanding of the principles of law that guide the governance and operations of schools while equipping school authorities with appropriate knowledge, skills and disposition to fulfill their
obligations to school-aged youngsters.


In her research, she identified four Pearson Educational Leadership Series books (https://www.amazon.com/School-Law-Public-Schools-Educational/dp/0137072759) that are valuable resources on these topics. They cover many facets of K-12 School Law and are important resources to empower school administrators and staff.

They are:
 Law and Ethics in Educational leadership, David Stader ISBN: 978-0-13-268587-0
 School Law and the Public Schools, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-707275-0
 A Teacher’s Pocket Guide to School Law, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-335191-0
 School Law: Cases and Concepts, Michael W. LaMorte, ISBN:978-0-13-707247-7


Pearson’s resources (https://www.pearson.com/us/sign-in.html) focus on the major areas of school-related litigation and the implications of court rulings for school leaders, teachers as well as the related changes in policy affecting the school environment. School staff will be empowered to deal in legally defensible ways with school- and community-based situations and remain current with school related law and policy.

Topic: Facebook Postings
Pearson Educational Leadership Series

 Sample Scenarios from: Law and Ethics in Educational leadership, David Stader (ISBN: 978-0-13-268587-0) and School Law and the Public Schools, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-707275-0

As you are probably aware, there are more than 800 million active users on Facebook, according to their own statistics. Although some students may claim that all of their Facebook postings are protected by the freedom of expression right afforded all citizens through the U.S. Constitution, there are circumstances when school leaders may take action to limit or eliminate this right under certain conditions.

Let’s work through a case scenario.

You have obtained access to some troubling Facebook postings made by David, a middle school student in your school. His highly derogatory postings are directed at his social studies teacher, Mr. Williams. David’s statements are inflammatory, and clearly untrue.

When you confront David and his parents, they tell you that the “satire” is cutting-edge and popular. Obviously, you just do not get it from your mundane school principal perspective. They substantiate their popularity claim by reporting that hundreds of David’s Facebook friends from school think it is hilarious. Furthermore, they do not understand why you are trying to infringe on David’s freedom of expression, since he writes the satire from his home computer. They also claim that it has nothing to do with school because it is located on his personal Facebook account. They accuse you of illegally trying to censor David’s creativity. They tell you to “mind your own business.”

Let’s legally review this scenario by answering the following four questions.

Question 1: Should you share David’s Facebook postings with Mr. Williams?

The main issue on which we will want to reflect is if there any professional liability if you fail to share the postings with him? You need to realize that you will acquire significant professional liability if you decide to not share this information with Mr. Williams. Many school leaders would consider a private meeting with Mr. Williams, to share David’s Facebook postings in a timely manner, as essential.

Question 2: What legal principle applies in this case?

The controlling question is Do you need to take action, or “mind your own business”?

The primary legal principle applicable in this case centers on whether there is a nexus (connection) between David’s Facebook posting and your school. Since the Facebook postings have admittedly been viewed by “hundreds of David’s Facebook friends from school” and potentially others, including parents, these untrue rants could significantly impact Mr. William’s status as a respected teacher in your school. Since there is a nexus, action is necessary.

Question 3:  Based on this legal principle, what action (if any) do you take? Since this is a school matter, do certain student policies apply?

Your applicable student code of conduct policies, acceptable use of technology policies, and/or other student policies should be fairly applied in this case. This student misbehavior, even though it occurred “out-of-school”, has become a school issue. As such, decisive administrative action is required.

Out of School Student Misbehavior

K-12 Law School Series

Out of School Student Misbehavior

Marilyn Gardner, a lawyer, spent years teaching Advanced School Law at the university doctoral level. Her focus was court decisions at all levels of government which have had an impact on the governance of schools and what school personnel can do in terms of the operation of schools, curriculum, instruction, assessment and school personnel, and treatment of candidates. Marilyn Gardner, Lawyer, would always stress that failure to comply with school law can have far-reaching and costly implications.

The K-12 School Law Series curriculum focuses on the Pearson Educational Leadership Series books which focus on the major areas of school litigation and promotes an understanding of the principles of law that guide the governance and operations of schools while equipping school authorities with appropriate knowledge, skills, and disposition to fulfill their obligations to school-aged youngsters.

In her research, she identified four Pearson Educational Leadership Series books (https://www.amazon.com/School-Law-Public-Schools-Educational/dp/0137072759) that are valuable resources on these topics.  They cover many facets of K-12 School Law and are important resources to empower school administrators and staff.  They are:

Law and Ethics in Educational leadership, David Stader ISBN: 978-0-13-268587-0
School Law and the Public Schools, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-707275-0
A Teacher’s Pocket Guide to School Law, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-335191-0
School Law: Cases and Concepts, Michael W. LaMorte, ISBN:978-0-13-707247-7

Pearson’s resources (https://www.pearson.com/us/sign-in.html) focus on the major areas of school-related litigation and the implications of court rulings for school leaders, teachers as well as the related changes in policy affecting the school environment. School staff will be empowered to deal in legally defensible ways with school- and community-based situations and remain current with school-related law and policy.

Topic: Out of School Student Misbehavior

Pearson Educational Leadership Series
Sample Scenarios from: Law and Ethics in Educational leadership, David Stader (ISBN: 978-0-13-268587-0) and School Law and the Public Schools, Nathan Essex, ISBN: 978-0-13-707275-0

Today we are going to focus on Out of School Student Misbehavior. School leaders are generally familiar with their authority in disciplining students while attending a school or participating in school-sponsored activities. However, their disciplinary authority becomes severely limited when the alleged student misbehavior occurs out of school. Administrators need a certain set of Skills in this area.  for knowing, understanding, analyzing, and communicating include the following:

They need to:

  • Know I when to be the investigative Authority
  • Understand their Administrative Authority
  • Be able to Analyze Facts and Applying Legal Principles and
  • Communicate their Decisions

Let’s go into more detail for each.

Knowing Your Investigative Authority means the effective administrator knows when to question students accused of out of school misbehaviors.

Understanding your Administrative Authority means the effective administrator knows when to become involved and take action in out of school alleged student misbehaviors.

When Analyzing Facts and Applying Legal Principles – The effective administrator analyzes the facts surrounding a specific case and takes appropriate action based
on legal principles. and finally, The effective administrator tactfully and diplomatically communicate unpopular decisions.

Let’s discuss the following scenario. In this activity, you will answer the following questions, and then write a letter to a local store owner explaining the rationale for your decision. Mr. Al Fred, a community business owner and a significant financial supporter of your school’s athletic programs has complained again about two of your students.
Apparently, these students visit Mr. Fredd’s nearby variety store daily after school and cause problems. Specifically, they curse at him and his wife and are generally just rude. They also suspect that these students spray-paint graffiti on the back and sides of the store, although they cannot prove it. He wants you to do something. He is now threatening to withhold further substantial financial donations to your school. Furthermore, he intends to contact his best friend on the School Board to complain about your inaction.
Let’s legally review this scenario by answering the following four questions.

Question 1: Since the incident occurred outside of school, can the school principal legally discuss the matter with the students?

It is important to note that there a difference between fact-finding and taking adverse action against the students? Yes, the school principal may talk with the students about the allegations to obtain additional information. The results of this fact-finding investigation should assist the principal in deciding whether to take action for an out of school incident allegedly committed by these students.

Question 2: Under what conditions may a school principal legally take adverse action against students for out of school alleged misbehaviors?

The big question in this scenario is Does a school principal’s administrative authority differ for in-school and out of school student misbehavior? Yes, a school principal’s authority varies greatly depending on whether the student’s misbehavior occurs in-school or out of school. School principals enjoy wide authoritative latitude for in school incidents. Their authority, however, is severely limited for out of school student misbehaviors.

School leaders should act only if there’s a nexus (direct connection) between the alleged out of school incident and the school. For example, two students fighting at the mall on Saturday does not necessarily create a nexus with the school. Therefore, principals should not become involved. If on the other hand, the students vow to continue fighting when they arrive at school on Monday, it becomes a school matter. Principals should, therefore, take decisive action, such as meeting with both students immediately upon their arrival.

Question 3: In this case, does the principal have the legal authority to take action?

Although the students are enrolled in your school and their behavior is regrettable, their alleged misbehavior has no nexus with your school (their misbehavior at Mr. Fred’s store is not being exhibited in your school). Therefore, you have no legal authority to take adverse action against these students.

Question 4: What could you do to help the situation?

As noted earlier, the store owner is a significant financial supporter of your school. One suggestion is to write a letter that is direct, yet diplomatic.